Notes from BWI Grower Seminar – 2017

Posted on Categories Growers, Notes, Programs

A seminar for greenhouse and nursery growers was recently held in Buda TX (01/24/2017) and Tyler TX (01/25/2017). Summary notes and relevant resources related to the talks can be found below.


Plant Protection of Insect and Mite Pests

by Dr. Raymond Cloyd

Minimizing Disease Preventatively: The role of the environment

by Dr. Ann Chase

Best Rotation Programs to Avoid Resistance

by Dr. Raymond Cloyd

Preventative vs Curative Fungicides and Rotations

by Dr. Ann Chase

Laws & Regulations

by Ms. Morgan Scott/Ms. Katherine Newton

Plant Protection of Insect and Mite Pests

Dr. Raymond Cloyd
Kansas State University

Two most prolific organisms on the planet:

  1. Aphids
  2. Twospotted spider mites


  • Do not need to mate to reproduce
  • All aphids are females
  • Each aphid can give birth to 100 offspring within a month
  • All offspring genetic identical clones to the mother
  • A single female aphid, over 5 generations, can become a population over 13 million aphids

Green Peach Aphids:

  • Vector viruses of many plants

Western Flower Thrips:

  • Cause direct damage
  • Indirect: transmit tospoviruses- Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

Whenever you have an insect that vectors viruses, you need to intensify your management program

Backbone to good management:

  • Cultural and sanitation practices
    • Proper watering
    • Proper fertility
    • Proper spacing
    • Removal of all weeds, and plant and growing medium debris

First Line of Defense Against Insect & Mite Pests and Plant Diseases Involves:

  • Implementing appropriate sanitation practices

Top Five Sanitation Tips:

  1. Throw away dead plants
  2. Pick-up all plant and leaf litter
  3. Clean filters
  4. Use filtered water
  5. Clean bench surfaces, tools, and containers.

You need garbage bins with tight sealing bins.

  • Insects on discarded plants will move off the plants and onto your good plants
  • In May, they caught about 220 thrips coming out of garbage containers
  • They caught thousands of whiteflies out of some containers in November/December; from poinsettias.

Greenhouse Sanitation:

  • Place all debris in containers with tight-sealing lids or dispose of into “compost piles”
  • Remove or “eliminate” algae from benches and floors
  • Remove weeds and plant material and growing medium debris
  • Dispose of old stock plants or any left-over plant material

Weeds growing underneath the benches:

  • Not only refuge for the pest but can also be carrier for plant viruses

Important of weed management:

  • Many broadleaf weeds are susceptible to and serve as a refuge or alternate host for insect and mite pests, including: aphids, whiteflies, apids, mites, and thrips
  • A number of weeds may also harbor the viruses vectored by aphids, whiteflies and thrips.

One way to manage/reduce weeds:

  • Use of weed-fabric barrier to reduce problems associated with weeds and algae

“Compost” pile outside of greenhouse: is there a location issue?

  • Insects on the degrading plants in the compost may migrate to the next closest crop

Plant that get lots of fertizilier, especially nitrogen-based fertilizers:

  • Promotes aphid, spidermites, and scales

Yellow Sticky Cards:

  • Used mainly for population dynamics and identification

Still need to do routine monitoring/scouting of the plant leaves, because pests like twospotted spider mites are not caught on yellow sticky cards.

Yellow sticky tape: capture flying insects such as winged aphids, adult thrips, adult whiteflies, beetles, and moths

  • Can have reduce the migration of insects into a greenhouse.

Can also do micro-screening to prevent insect pests from migrating into the greenhouse

Gravel under greenhouse benches:

  • Insects can fall out of the plant late in the season and drop into the gravel and “rest” as pupa until its warm again
  • Can place these yellow sticky board/frame and it catches insects when they first come out.

Water plants night before insecticide spray, to ensure that plants are turgid and not stressed, in order to reduce phytotoxicity.

  • Spray in the morning, gives opportunity for insecticide to dry (to reduce moist leaves and fungi)
  • Still cool enough that insects will be active

Pesticide types:

  • Broad-spectrum: have activity on many insect and mite pests with “long” residual activity or persistence
  • Narrow-spectrum: have activity on very narrow or few insect pests

How to effectively use pesticides:

  1. Timing: Apply pesticide when the most susceptible life stage (e.g. larva, nymph, and adult) of a given insect or mite pest is present
  2. Coverage: when spraying a pesticide, be sure to obtain thorough coverage of all plant parts including: leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits
  3. Frequency: Apply pesticides within timely intervals, which is dependent on the residual activity of a given pesticide. Read the label for information associate with frequency of application.

Insects like to be on the underside of the leaves, so coverage must include spray that targets/gets the underside of the leaves

Applications of certain pesticides such as pyrethroids, may stimulate twospotted spider mite populations.

Multiple Insect and Mite Pest Complexes: How does this influence “Control” and Spatial Distribution?

– If you have thrips and twospotted spider mites, and you spray to kill thrips, you could reduce competition for twospotted spider mite, so then it spreads everywhere.

Secondary Pest Outbreak

  • When you spray for one insect, you may be altering the population dynamics of the system
  • Example: If you spray for aphids and kill predatory mites in turn, this may spur a large increase in twospotted spider mite populations

Twospotted Spider mite:

  • Really like warmer dry weather (>75ºF)

Translaminar Activity:

  • Spray hits the top part of the leaf, the chemical is taken into the leaf and can target insects that are on the underside of the leaf.
  • Don’t need to be AS diligent to have spray coverage on underside of leaf, although it is still recommended.


  • Feed primarily on the underside of leaves
  • Feed within the vascular system removing plant fluids (=phloem feeder)
  • All life stages are on leaf underside

If you have a plant that has a waxy surface, add a surfactant

  • Will help you give you better coverage

Chilli Thrips Adult

– Looks like broadmite damage
– Attacks foliage more than western flower thrips
– Also vectors viruses
– Pyrethroids do not work against chilli thrips
– Acephate (Orthene)
– Imidacloprid (Merit)
– Spinosad (Conserve)


  • One female scale of some species can produce over 1000 eggs
  • Want to spray scale when you have “crawlers”
  • Can determine when you have crawlers by using double-sided sticky tape on the bark

Management of scale:

  • Weekly applications for about four weeks
  • Crawlers are most susceptible
  • Systemic insecticides work on soft scales, do no work very well on hard scales
  • Dormant oils are targeted at overwintering immatures or females (eg. Euonymus scale, obscure scale, and cottony maple scale)

What is Biological control:

  • Use of natural enemies that are released to regulate pest populations
  • Keeping pest at levels that will minimize levels of plant damage
  • Key = regulation of insect and/or mite pest populations

Can buy biological control from a number of different suppliers


  • First need to identify the aphid to species level
  • Green peach aphid/cotton/melon aphid: Aphidius colemani
  • Potato/Foxglove aphid: Aphidius ervi
  • Tobacco aphid

Banker plant system:

  • Use alternate aphid-host system to maintain parasitoid populations
  • Aphid on banker plant cannot attack your plant of interest
  • Parasitoids can attack aphids on bankers and aphids in your greenhouse
  • Will not work if you are growing ornamental grasses

Online Biological Control Course that is offered periodically:

Minimizing Disease Preventatively: The role of the environment

Dr. Ann Chase
Chase Agricultural Consulting


Disease Triangle:

  • Plant host
  • Environment
  • Pathogen

If you break any of the above, you break the disease cycle!

What can you do?

  • Shadehouse (controlling light level and temperature a bit)
  • Greenhouse (can keep out some insects, decrease pathogen introduction, decrease rain)
  • Raised benches (decreased move from the soil into the base of the pots, greatly increased air movement)
  • Flood floors (potentially taken away leaf wetting, make certain diseases very unlikely)
  • Ebb and flood benches (reduce relative humidity, better air movement, not making leaves wet, very uncommon bacterial leaf spot)
  • Drip tape or drip tubes (stop the movement of pathogens IN through the water, because they aren’t moving water from plant to plant)

Worst case scenario:

  • Outside
  • Overhead irrigation
  • No protection from sun, rain, or insects
  • Plant pots are sitting on gravel, so no protection or air flow beneath

If you have wet leaves = you have diseases

  • Anything we can do to reduce that, disease incidence can decrease

Hoop houses/Shade cloth

  • Can help reduce insect movement, changed the environment
  • Actually increase humidity over night, which can actually make some diseases happy.

Greenhouses can protect plants from fog:

  • Can decrease instances of downy mildew

So much water and extra nutrition: see algae!

  • Overhead irrigation, rain, and recycling water = excellent conditions to get foliar diseases!

A lot of things are done, not to prevent disease, but to grow the crop

  • That’s important, but when you have the opportunity to decrease instance of plant disease, then take the opportunity.

When you don’t have money for a bench:

  • Can use upside down trays
  • Can use upside down empty pots under your plants

Ann has seen the best botrytis on ebb and flow benches

  • People aren’t checking them
  • Get lots of humidity and movement of pathogens through the water

Under bench heating:

  • Helps with root growth
  • However, root rot diseases on certain foliage only occurred when they had heated benches
    • An improvement can sometimes create more problems. So you have to weigh out the benefits vs added costs
  • If plants are sitting on the ground, pay attention to where water pools
    • May can increased instance of pest diseases there and can act as a source of inoculation

What is covered in “the environment”:

  • Light
  • Temperature
  • Water
  • Structures
  • Relative humidity
  • Leaf wetness (i.e. irrigation, cover from rain)
  • Pathogen spread

Gray Mold (Botrytis blight – gray to brown spores):

  • Is NEVER white. Always greyish brown color
  • Spores form on all parts of the plants
  • Botrytis spores spread by fans or wind and infect new leaves
  • Overnight moisture on leaves is especially favorable for Botrytis sporulation
  • Fans, however, also help reduce humidity. It’s more important to try to reduce humidity than to reduce movement of botrytis

Botrytis Characteristics:

  • Botrytis conidia are released when there is a rapid change in relative humidity
  • They require air currents or splashing water for dispersal within the greenhouse
  • In geranium stock-plant production areas, peak concentrations of conditia:
    • Harvesting cuttings
    • Spraying pesticides
    • Drip-tube watering: changes the environment right around the plant
  • Optimal growth temperature is reported to be 75 – 82F, but some growth occurs from 32 – 95F. Water is the KEY to all of this.

Cultural control strategies:

  • Heat and vent at dusk to reduce humidity. Reduce condensation in the morning
  • Space plants to reduce humidity
  • All handling can spread botrytis spores including irrigation and fungicide spraying
  • Never water at night
    • That’s what Ann would do to try and create disease!
  • If you put crops in hanging baskets, and the leaves fall all of the time: if it falls on the plant below, it will transfer diseases to plants below.
    • Just need to play closer attention to these plants

Places like Canada need very controlled environments, because it’s cold and they don’t get enough light:

  • Those controlled environments allow them to also control things like humidity and conditions to reduce disease

Powdery Mildew (white spots or all over leaves, flower and stems, almost always on the upper surface of leaves)

  • White spots/spores
  • They don’t like wet leaves
  • On spores and break off when there’s wind and go to other plants. Reduce humidity to reduce

Downy Mildew (can be white, violette/purple color, grey, and can be black, and almost always on the underside)

  • Look like grape clusters. Released when the sun comes up and the humidity comes down. Structure collapses and they are released. Best time to spray for downy mildew is in the morning, because that’s when the spores would have just broken off and spread.
  • Most spores spread by fans or wind and infect new leaves before noon
  • Wet leaves and high humidity make the downy mildew fungi sporulate and infect healthy leaves
  • Just need wet leaves for six hours = downy mildew
  • Use fans and venting to reduce humidity and leaf wetness
  • Water early in the day to ensure dry foliage at night
  • Heaters change RH (make environment a bit dryer)

Recommends spraying in the morning. Do not water in the evening, but you’ll end up being wet overnight for a long period of time.

You should not spray year-round for all pathogens:

  • Different pathogens have optimal temperatures
  • Spraying all fungicides at all times is not economic and will hurt the plants
  • Watch for diseases by scouting
  • When to time preventative sprays
  • Help in diagnosis by narrowing down the likely causes

When there are great temperature fluctuations – check for stressed plants that will be more susceptible to disease

  • You just need to know that it’s important and to do some extra scouting

Chase Digest

ChaseBase (subscription service: efficacy trials)

Chase  News Archives – open access

Ask Ann – consulting

Custom consulting/research

Best Rotation Programs to Avoid Resistance

Dr. Raymond Cloyd
Kansas State University

Resistance: Genetic ability of some individuals in an arthropod pest population to survive an application of applications of pesticides

Why be concerned:

  • Over 520 insect (and mite) species have developed resistance to pesticides over the last 50 years
  • Insects and mites will survive as they possess the inherent ability to evolve (or adapt) to various environmental and human disturbance factors (pesticides)
  • Resistance develops at the population level and pests can pass those traits onto their offspring.
  • Every time you spray an insecticide or miticide, you are putting pressure on the population to select for resistance.

Amount of “Selection Pressure”

  • Increases with frequency of insecticide application
  • No insecticide or miticide is “resistant proof”
  • There are exceptions (i.e. nuclear bomb)

Very similar to anti-biotic resistance

In order to minimize resistance, keep rotating modes of action

The frequency in which resistant genes occur in a pest population determines the rate that resistance may develop

Mechanisms of Resistance:

  • Metabolic resistance
  • Physiological resistance
  • Physical resistance
  • Behavioral resistance
  • Natural resistance

Metabolic Resistance:

  • Degradation of the active ingredient by an arthropod pest. When the pesticide enters the body, enzymes attack and detoxify or convert the material into a non-toxic form. The active ingredient is then excreted out with other waste products
  • Metabolism is the most common resistance mechanism that occurs in insects

Physiological Resistance:

  • An arthropod pest modifies the target site of the pesticide, which decreases sensitivity to the active ingredient at the physical point of attack because the target site has been altered.

Two Types of Resistance:

Cross Resistance: based on a single resistance mechanism conferring resistance to pesticides in the same chemical class and/or having similar modes of action

Multiple resistance: insect or mite pest population resistant to more than one pesticide by means of multiple resistance mechanisms

Biological factors responsible for promoting resistance:

  • Short generation time
  • High reproductive rate
  • Wide host range (probability of them being exposed over a longer period of the season is increased. Increased number of generations)

If you’re going to mix insecticides in order to try and reduce resistance, mix:

  • A broad spectrum insecticide with a narrow spectrum that are from two different Modes of Action
    • Very unlikely to have a mechanism that would result in cross-resistance if you are combining broad with narrow-spectrum host range.

Before blaming resistance, these could be reasons for lack of efficacy:

  1. Not using correct pesticide (insecticide/miticide)
  2. Not using correct label rate
  3. Insufficient coverage
  4. Watering heavily after applying a systemic insecticide: leaching material from the growing medium
  5. Not adjusting the pH of the spray solution (above certain pH, can break down insecticide)
  6. Applying pesticides when susceptible life stage (e.g. larvae, nymphs, and adults) are absent/not present
  7. Not applying pesticides frequently enough; especially during spring through fall. Also when dealing with multiple or over-lapping generations (with different age structures)
  8. Not routinely scouting crop to determine the effectiveness of the pesticide application

Mode of Action:

  • How a pesticide such as an insecticide or miticide actually kills the organism

Narrow-spectrum (site-specific): pesticides that are active on specific target sites such as the central nervous system or enzymes associated with metabolism

Broad-spectrum (general): targets many different sites or less specific to single site/organism

Preventative vs Curative Fungicides and Rotations

Dr. Ann Chase
Chase Agricultural Consulting


What is prevention?

  • Don’t see any signs or symptoms yet.
  • Conditions are likely

What is eradication?

  • Stop it and don’t want it to happen again

What factors are important?

  • Disease Characteristics
  • Product characteristics
    • Does it penetrate the parts of the plant with the disease?
  • Environment or plant characteristics

Diseases without a significant cure:

  • Viruses: none of them can be rescued; ever
  • Phytophthora – if you see symptoms it may be too late. Initial symptoms to dead plants can be a few days
  • Bacterial diseases – especially crown gall (Agrobacterium), fasciation (Rhodococcus), wilt (Ralstonia) and soft rot (Erwinia)
    • Crown gall acts like a retrovirus, where it integrates into the host genome
  • Fusarium (fungicide may actually make a fusarium disease worse)
  • Black root rot (Thielaviopsis)
    • You see a plant with it, you can’t cure it. Throw it out.

Keys to successful rescue operation

  • Know what the problem is exactly
  • Avoid thinking that a biological, green or otherwise soft product will work in a rescue situation
  • Fix cultural problems that are promoting the disease
  • Use the best products that have been shown to have the most “eradication”

Chart printed by Syngenta is based solely on Ann Chase’s work and input

  • All data is based on trials

The Best Products for a Rotation


  • 2 products is enough, but 3 is good
  • More than that, you don’t know which product is the one that is actually working and which may be causing phytotoxicity

Powdery Mildew Rotation:

  • Eradication likely
  • Compass O, Heritage or Pageant Intrinsic (11-strobilurin) (orchestra, new BASF product)
  • Terraguard, Trigo, Banner MAXX, Eagle, Trouney, Trinity, Torque (3 sterol inhibitors)
  • Camelot O, Kocide, Python 27 (M1-copper)
  • MilStop (nc-K bicarbonate)
  • Palladium (12 and 9)

Some of the above products are considered organic

Cercospora Rotation

  • Eradication possible
  • 3336, Fungo, OHP6672 (1-thiophanate methyl)
  • Medallion (12-fludioxonil) or Palladium (12 and 9 – fludioxonil and cyprodinil)
  • Compass O

Alternaria Rotation

  • Eradication possible
  • Daconil
  • Medallion or Palladium
  • Compas O, Heritag, Mural, or Pageant Intrinsic
  • Banner MAXX, Trinity, Terraguard, Trigo and others (3-sterol inhibitors)
  • Chipco 26019 (2-iprodione)

Calletotrichum Rotation (Anthracnose)

  • Eradication possible
  • Phyton 27
  • Dithane, Protect, Pentathlon (prevention only)
  • Daconil Ultrex and Spectro
  • Pageant Intrinsic (11 and 7-pyraclostrobin and boscalid)

Rhizoctonia Rotation

  • Eradication possible
  • Medallion by far the best
  • Medallion (12-fludioxinil) and Palladium (12 and 9-fludioxinil and cyprodinil)
  • Heritage (11-strobilurin) or Empress or Pageant Intrinsic (11 and 7-pyraclostrobin and boscalid)
  • 3336, Fungo, OHP-6672
  • Rootshield Plus, root rot only and not as an eradicant.

Rust Rotation

  • Eradication possible with dry leaves
  • Banner MAXX, Trigo, Trinity, Torque, Tourney, Eagle or Terraguard
  • Compass O, Heritage, or Pageant intrinsic and others (need wetting agent)
  • Camelot O or Phyton 27 (M1-copper)
  • Dithane, pentathlon, or protect (M3-mancozeb) (not effective at eradication)

Botrytis rotation

  • Eradication possible with environmental changes – also if only flowers are attacked
  • Decree (17-fenhexamid) has been the best at knocking down spores
  • Daconil Ultrex; do not spray on flowers. Will get burning
  • Medallion or Palladium
    • Some of them clearly Do no spray on geranium
  • Chipco 26019, 26GT
  • Pageant Intrinsic or Orkestra Intrinsic
  • Mural

Pythium rotation

  • Empress
  • Subdue MAXX
  • Segway O
  • Terrazole or Truban
  • RootShield Plus (preventative, not for eradication)

Sclerotinia rotation

  • Eradication rarely possible…
  • Medallion or Palladium
  • Pageant Intrinsic or Orkestra Intrinsic

Downy Mildew rotation

  • Eradication possible with early infections that are NOT systemic
  • Compass O, Heritage or Pageant Intrinsic or FenStop
  • Subdue MAXX
  • Adorn
  • Aliette
  • Segway O
  • Micora, Stature, or Orvego
  • Segovis

Bactericide rotation

  • Eradication generally not possible
  • Copper, Camelot O, Kocide, and Phyton
  • Cease (best for pseudomonas and xanthomonas)
  • Triathlon BA (effective on most bacteria)
  • Agri-Mycin (works well, but some areas have lots of resistance to it)
  • KleenGrow (effective on most bateria)

Thielaviopsis rotation

  • Eradication not possible once symptoms appear
  • OHP-6672, 3336
  • Affirm
  • Heritage
  • Medallion or Palladium
  • Terraguard

Phytophtora rotation

  • Eradication not possible on foliar blight if overhead irrgation is stopped. NO eradication likely with crown rot
  • Aliette
  • Adorn
  • Subdue MAXX
  • Micora or Stature
  • Terrazole or Truban
  • FenStop
  • Segway
  • Segovis

Fusarium rotation

  • Eradication possible only on leaf spots and root rot with improved conditions

Laws & Regulations

Ms. Morgan Scott / Ms. Katherine Newton
Texas Department of Agriculture

Restricted Use – will say “Restricted Use” on the label. Need license to buy it and license to apply it

Number of regulated counties in Texas – Included on the TDA Website

4 types of licenses:

  • Private
  • Commercial
  • Non-commercial
  • Non-commercial political

The Texas Department of Ag licenses pesticide applicators who use:

  • restricted-use pesticides
  • state-limited use pesticides
  • regulated herbicides

General pesticides?

  • No, but there are exceptions

CEU Requirements:

Private license: 15 CEUs over 3 years

  • 2 IPM
  • 2 Laws & Regs
  • Rest can be general
  • Can take up to 10 of your CEUs online

  • Click there to find online correspondence courses

How long do you have to keep your certificates of completion?

  • 1 year after the renewal date of your license
  • The department may audit CEUs during an onsite inspection or by requesting copies of certificates of completion be mailed to the department

Change of Information

  • Change of information form (PA-406)
  • Notify the department within 30 days of any change in the information provided as part of the application for a license
  • You can scan the signed form and email it to, fax or mail

If the CEUs are given out-of-state, can you use those to count for your Texas CEUs?

  • Yes, if they have submitted paperwork to get approved for TDA CEUs.


  • If you attend some conference that’s in another state and they didn’t apply for TDA CEU license number, you could apply for self-sponsorship
  • Keep course agenda
  • Form that can be printed online and you’re applying for the sponsorship

If any of your contact information ever changes:

  • Fill out and submit a PA-406 form

Agricultural Establishment:

  • Does not include pasture or rangeland where the forage will not be harvested for hay.
    • Do not need to comply with WPS
  • If you work in a forest, field, greenhouse, or nursery situation, you need to comply with WPS

Worker VS Handlers


  • Mix, load, or apply agricultural pesticides
  • Clean, repair pesticide application equipment
  • Assist with application of pesticides


  • Perform tasks related to growing and harvesting plants on farms or in greenhouses, nurseries or forests

Purpose of revised WPS rules

  • Last revision was in 1992
  • OSHA; Occupation Safety and Health Administration. Typically regulate occupational hazards
  • Since EPA was already regulating ag-related work, EPA took on the “OSHA” of ag-related occupational hazards

What will these changes achieve?

  • Each year, between 1800 and 3000 occupational incidents involving pesticide exposure are reported from farms, forests, nurseries and greenhouses

Can download full “How to Comply Manual” from:

How to Comply:

  • Before, During, and After application


  • Training!
  • Previous: Every 5 years. Revisions: Every year.
  • Used to have a 5-day grace period, but now there’s no grace period
  • Expand Training Content for workers and handlers
  • Qualifications for trainers of workers: Handlers can no longer train workers. Certified applications can or someone who has completed a TDA-approved train-the-trainer course
  • Mandatory keep training records for 2 years. Can produce your own record-keeping document, as long as it has all the required information

May have business need for trainers that speak Spanish to train workers.

Who is not considered a worker/handler?

  • Licensed applicator!

Delayed Implementation for Training Content

  • Recent changes expanded training content
  • Worker training has 23 items
  • Handler training has 36 items

Delayed until January 2018

FAQ – Why not just train everyone has a handler?

  • You can! Handler has a few more items of training that they need.

FAQ – I previously completed a WPS train-the-trainer program. Do I have to complete a new TtT program before training employees?

Provide Personal Protective Equipment

During Application

  • Application Exclusion Zone (AEZ)
  • Previously, WPS said you can’t let anyone into the treated area. New: they have clarified where the AEZ is that workers can’t re-enter.
  • When application is done, the AEZ no longer exists. Only follows the equipment as it’s being applied.
  • AEZ distance is pointed out in the WPS manual

WPS Violations from 2016

  • Pesticide safety training: 20

Page 21 – 22 of how to comply manual are most common violation

You only need license for restricted use, state limited use, etc. but once you have the license, you have to keep records of ALL uses (included general use insecticides).

Record keeping biggest problem in terms of compliance:

  • Whoever made the decision to apply that specific pesticide – “Name of the person for whom the application was made” (who this application is benefitting).



“How to Comply” Manual:

“How to Comply” Separate Chapters:

WPS Quick Reference Guide:

Pesticides; Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Revisions (Disclaimer: This document can be a bit overwhelming):

Changes to WPS factsheet:

WPS revisions comparison chart:

WPS revisions comparison chart (en español):